- An important Sumerian city that seems to have been the first large urban center in Mesopotamia and the world. Uruk (modern Tell al-Warka), from whose name the modern name Iraq mayhavederived, lies within the city limits of Warka, an Iraqi city situated some 140 miles (225 km) southeast of modern Baghdad. Warka is the Arabic name for the site; the Sumerian name for Uruk was Unug, and in the Old Testament it is called Erech.According to legend, Uruk was established by a king named Meskiaggasher in the dim past. Evidence uncovered by archaeologists suggests that the site was occupied by about 5000 b.c., near the beginning of the Ubaidian period. The town's great heyday, however, came later, in the fourth millennium b.c., when it underwent spectacular growth. For a while it was the world's only and largest city, covering an area of up to 2 square miles (5.2 sq. km). A number of temples were erected during this period, including the Eanna (House of An), dedicated to Inanna, goddess of love and sexual passion. It also appears that Uruk's scribes invented the art of writing using cuneiform symbols etched onto clay tablets. In the early third millennium b.c., according to the Sumerian King List, a king named Gilgamesh ruled Uruk. Assuming he was a real person, he is credited with extending and finishing the city's outer defensive wall, which reached 6 miles (10 km) in circumference. Gilgamesh, or at least an exaggerated, romanticized memory of him, also later became the subject of the most famous piece of ancient Mesopotamian literature, the Epic of Gilgamesh.Later in the same millennium, King Lugalzagesi of Umma captured Uruk. But he was soon defeated by the great imperialist Sargon of Akkad, and Uruk became part of the Akkadian Empire. The Akkadians continued to construct temples in Uruk, as did the rulers of the empire that superceded the Akkadian realm, the Third Dynasty of Ur. After the latter's fall in about 2004 b.c., Uruk went into decline. It revived somewhat in the first millennium b.c. and remained prosperous during the Persian, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sassanian periods that followed. Finally, during the early years of the Muslim period, which beganinthe a.d. 630s, Uruk was abandoned.The first modern investigation of Uruk began in 1912, when a German team led by Julius Jordan arrived on the site. Work was suspended during World War I, but it resumed in 1928. Excavations, mostly by other German groups, have been continuous almost ever since. Still, only about one-fifth of the city's huge expanse has been explored in depth to date.Uruk is also the name given by modern scholars to the Mesopotamian historical period following the Ubaidian period; various estimates for the span of the Uruk period, inwhichUrukbecameatruecity, include circa 4000 to 3200 b.c. and circa 3700 to 3100 b.c. Scholars further break down the period into Early, Middle, and Late phases, based on pottery and other artifacts uncovered in the eighteen layers of human habitation found in Uruk.
Ancient Mesopotamia dictioary. Don Nardo Robert B. Kebric. 2015.
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Uruk — Localisation Pays Irak … Wikipédia en Français
Uruk — … Deutsch Wikipedia
URUK — Mentionnée dans la Bible sous le nom d’Erech, Uruk reste pendant près de quatre mille ans un des principaux sites de la Mésopotamie. C’est un de ses rois semi légendaires, Gilgamesh, qui est le héros d’une célèbre épopée, écrite en sumérien à la… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Uruk — (sumerio Unug, bíblico Erech, griego Orchoë y arábico Warqa), fue una ciudad antigua de Sumeria y después Babilonia, situada al este del lecho del Eufrates, en la línea del antiguo canal Nil, en una región de pantanos a 225 km al SSE de Baghdad.… … Enciclopedia Universal
Uruk — Uruk, Fluß, so v.w. Urup … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
uruk — (ürük) köstek; zerdalu, kaysı … Çağatay Osmanlı Sözlük
Uruk — Situación de las ciudades de la antigua Mesopotamia. Uruk se encuentra en el sur. Uruk (sumerio Unug, hebreo Erech, griego Orchoē u Ōrýgeia y arábe Warqa), fue una antigua ciudad de Mesopotamia, situada en la ribera oriental del río Éufrates,… … Wikipedia Español
URUK — (modern WARKA) Important Mesopotamian city in the southern plains, situated along the old course of the Euphrates. The site was first excavated by William Loftus in 1853–1855 and has been excavated almost continuously by German teams of… … Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia
Uruk — You may be looking for Iraq For other uses, see Uruk (disambiguation). Relief on the front of the Inanna temple of the Kara Indasch from Uruk Coordinates … Wikipedia
Uruk — Ụruk, hebräisch Erẹch, bedeutender sumerischer Stadtstaat in Südmesopotamien, nordwestlich von Ur, heute die Ruinenstätte Warka, Irak. Die um 4000 v. Chr. gegründete Stadt war um 3000 v. Chr. Zentrum der Kultur der Sumerer (Entstehung der… … Universal-Lexikon